The Way To Win In A Battle

“The way to win in a battle according to military science is to know the rhythms
of the specific opponents, and use rhythms that your opponents do not expect.”
—Miyamoto Musashi 

What does it mean to pierce an opponent’s OODA (Observe-Orient-Decide-Act) loop?

We reach the answer through the generational experience of the western professionals who revolved through the OODA loop swifter than their adversaries in theory, but have they done so in practice?

Does this stand the test of history? Would it not mean that the fastest opponent would always prevail? There are factors beyond speed such as agility and breadth of thought as displayed in General MacArthur’s haste push of the X corps into Korea which ended up pulling the Chinese into the conflict resulting in numerous defeats during the end of 1950.

Swift movement is but execution. The process of choosing the action and tactic is of equal importance as defeats of forceful swift actions as enacted by General Lee  in Gettysburg. Gunslingers know it is not the fastest draw but the righteous aim who wins the day. 


Colonel John Boyd, an innovative aviator of the US air force, developed an iterative feedback model, what is now known as the OODA loop, discerned from his days dogfighting in the Korean War. It has seen use in both military and civilian trades and is also used to hone athlete’s responses and decisions alike.

The process holds constant revolution between the following stages:

Observation, which leads a participant 

Orienton possible options,

Decideon an appropriate course of action

Acton that decision. 

People tend to overlook observation. The evolving and myriad skill to be aware and discerning of constantly changing environments. All stages of the OODA look are intertwined as the changing sensory input and mental picture alter our perception of the previous moment. Fluidity in decision making is a skill emerging from all phases blended.


A vital stage in understanding the OODA Loop is to look at it through the lens of the scientific method. In this perspective, decisions are hypotheses, and actions are essentially the process of testing selected hypotheses. If the quality of the information is imperfect, or if one’s orientation to the resultant knowledge is flawed, then speed may not be useful; it will only hasten an inappropriate decision or action. 

In other words, faster might not be better. Like a dancer who loses their balance, the solution is not to go quicker, but rather to stop, recover, and get back in tempo. The same applies to the OODA Loop. To employ it effectively, a participant must understand timing as well as the broader concept of rhythm.


Tempo has been defined by many from official publications to renowned martial artists. One of them was Bruce Lee whose definition of tempo as “that little fragment of time which is the most suitable to accomplish effective actions.” In this definition, successful combatants sync their speed, so their actions coincide with those of their opponent’s, with the goal being to be able to act at “the exact psychological and physical crux of weakness in an opponent.” This specific rhythm in which movements are executed could be called cadence, and to apply this concept, it helps to look at combat through the idea of beats.

 Beats are commonly found in the arts, such as meter in poetry or the time signature of music. More broadly, a beat could be considered as any action or moment of change. They are present in fights as well. Consider the one-two combo in boxing, a simple count that integrates rhythm into a punching drill. In such a combo, the one count is a jab with the lead hand, while the two count is a back hand cross. The drill can be made more complicated, with threes, fours, fives, and sixes added in to represent hooks and uppercuts on both sides, but, whatever their number, the punches are the beats.

A ballet instructor counts in  “one-and-two-and-three-and-four.” To represent the space between each beat which enacts the same rhythm of the punching combo. We are most vulnerable in between each beat when we calibrate and when balance and tempo can be shattered..


The goal of each fighter is to sever other’s OODA loop. Have them miss a beat. Speed is just one factor here. The psyche’s capacity to recognize opportunities assessing fluid scenarios and as Bruce Lee wrote  speed in delivering a stroke will lose most of its effectiveness unless the stroke is properly timed.”

In practice, it takes more than speed as at a certain point this approach becomes divorced from one’s opponent and their actions. Instead, decisions and actions should ideally happen in a way which sets up the opponent and makes them vulnerable to having their rhythm disrupted.

Bruce Lee identified two traditional methods by which a fighter could use their cadence to accomplish this setup, the first was to adopt slower than normal actions in the lead up to a decisive attack. In this application, after an opponent has adapted to our cadence, they are vulnerable to sudden accelerations in our actions. Alternatively, the lead up could be at a normal or quicker than normal speed, setting up a final attack at a slower cadence. This strategy effectively forces the adversary to commit to an action, allowing a combatant to watch the reaction and strike once the adversary is misaligned. Bruce Lee labeled these methods as “striking on the half-beat.”

Military application of the OODA will have greater complexity; however, the principles remain the same. Advantage is met not by cycling through the process as rapidly as possible as this approach supports dissociation of one’s own decision-making process from that of one’s opponent. Instead, the OODA Loop should be used to identify those little brackets in time when the opponent is most vulnerable to having their rhythm broken to enact their disruption of rhythm. In other words, the OODA’s loop is maximized when it is used to identify and exploit the opponent’s half-beat. Of note, this is consistent with Boyd’s own emphasis on the importance of the orientation stage of the OODA loop.

A recent practical example of this strategy was the September 2019 drone attacks on Saudi Arabian oil facilities, which briefly wiped out half of Saudi Aramco’s production capacity. In this case, the timing of the attacks may have been more important than the physical effects, since they occurred in the lead-up to Aramco’s initial public offering.[ What’s more, the longer term impact of the attacks may have contributed to reduced investor interest and an Aramco valuation that did not meet its initially intended target.[ At the very least, the attacks succeeded in compelling Saudi Arabia to focus on restoring its production capacity, in effect breaking their rhythm and forcing them to stop, recover, and get back on time In addition, Iran, widely believed to be responsible for the drone strikes, found increased influence with the Houthis in the aftermath of the attack, which was precisely what the Saudis had been hoping to prevent by entering the Yemen War. The timing of the attack, then, could be argued to have benefitted both the Houthis and Iran by catching the Saudis on a half-beat.


Boyd’s OODA Loop has long been held up as a means to reduce reaction time and enable quicker and more streamlined decision-making. While greater speed is clearly an advantage in combat, viewing the OODA Loop through the lens of faster is betterover-simplifies the model, and prevents combatants from realizing the full potential of this decision-making framework. By understanding that speed and timing are complementary, the potential of the OODA Loop can be maximized by focusing it to recognize these moments when an opponent is at the apex of vulnerability, and providing options to exploit those openings at the most opportune time. 

Armed Combat – Learning Through Play

While Larping (Live Action Role Play) often takes a lot of criticism for its exaggerated moves, ‘patty cake’ style of back and forth and anachronistic theme, it can be a great learning tool in a safe environment while also being a lot of fun. With its origins dating back to the 1970s, Larping has taken on many forms as it has grown in popularity and evolved throughout the years, ranging from small events to large festivals with hundreds or even thousands of participants. While much of the culture and activity around the event is not related to martial arts, there is certainly a component of Larping which has real value and can be leveraged to help teach core martial arts principles: single combat. The weapons and costumes of certain players are generally based on the medieval or renaissance period, though the weapons are foam or padded and the armor is a replica and much lighter. This certainly brings a different dynamic to how the combat is conducted, but many of the principles still apply and can be practiced without fear of damaging your partner. 

Avi, in his recent travels to Israel, trained a group of Larpers who were looking to improve their skills in single combat and group teamwork on the battlefield. With a 6thdegree black belt in Kendo, Avi knows quite a bit about combat with swords. The training began with a quick introduction to some of the weapons and the philosophy behind them. While a shield is seen as primarily a defensive tool, it can also be used as an offensive weapon or be used to disarm your opponent. While a second sword or even a knife in the offhand may appear to be an offensive weapon, this can be used as a defensive tool, intercepting or trapping an incoming attack to open the line of attack for the primary weapon. He also provided guidance on holding a shield in different ways to ensure that an attack doesn’t collapse or pivot the shield and leave the defender vulnerable. After describing some of the philosophy of swordsmanship, he allowed the group to practice, giving them tips and guidance along the way. Then he began instructing them on strategies for fighting two-on-two and how misdirection and relative position can serve to confuse the opponents and open new lines of attack. In the end, he was able to add some concepts and techniques to their abilities and give them a unique advantage in single or team combat in the future. 

One of the drawbacks of using foam weapons is the difficulty in building momentum and inertia while executing a movement, slowing attacks, and making them seem ineffective. Naturally, to compensate for this, practitioners will over exaggerate movements, which can start to build bad habits if the idea was to transfer this to real weapons in the future. Some of this can be helped by just padding weapons to maintain some of the weight, but of course, this can be difficult for larger weapons such as axes and large swords. Another drawback is the inability to execute precise movements, such as penetrating strikes and stabbing movements. Most foam weapons rely on large slashing movements so as not to damage the tips of padded or foam weapons. While through practice and using higher quality, higher weight equipment can help in some ways, these habits can be worked out to some degree, there is another solution: Use more realistic weapons that aren’t sharpened, but increase the amount of protective gear. 

From January to September 2010, Christian Eckert led the Gladiator Project, taking students from Regensburg University in Germany to a real historical ‘Scoula’ to train as the gladiators would have, paying close attention to every detail of the diet, lifestyle and arrangements that a real prospective gladiator would have gone through. By giving the students weapons and armor that would have been very similar to the actual gladiators, he found that the students, through play and his guidance, were able to reconstruct much of the combat that would likely have been seen back in that day. Interestingly, he discovered that despite popular belief that these were bloody matches to the death, most of the gladiators that were paired together were specifically designed to not be able to easily strike a lethal blow, but rather a wounding blow that would end the match. Gladiators were expensive to train and maintain, the initial training lasting a whole two years. If they were simply to be led to a slaughter, it wouldn’t be a lucrative business for those who bought and trained these warriors. One of the keys to replicating the training was using realistically weighted weapons while also having a great deal of protective equipment to prevent injuries. 

While realistic training isn’t for everyone, training with foam weapons has the advantage of being safe and fun for kids as well. This is useful to help teach children some of the basics in martial arts concepts and principles, which can also be used to supplement existing children’s martial arts programs. However, in order to gain real proficiency, it will be necessary to introduce more realistic conditions, which isn’t appropriate for children. A revival in recent years of Medieval and Western armored combat has led to the creation of a number of groups, federations and competitions that are based largely in realistic style combat, often requiring the use of costly, authentic armor, true to the time period. The M-1 Medieval fighting tournament, Western Martial Arts Workshop, Historical European Martial Arts and International Medieval Combat Federation are just a few of these organizations that have grown in popularity and have attracted a number of martial artists and individuals drawn to the historical aspects and unique allure of the culture surrounding this. 

Whether training with foam weapons or more realistically, the openness and freedom of play allows practitioners to hone their abilities and discover what attacks are effective and which ones open them up to attacks. This paired with guidance to provide insights into the principles of combat and even by the study of historical documents from the period itself can help elucidate the techniques that are most effective against an enemy combatant. Avi is working to put together more material for individuals training and fighting in edged combat, providing a more enriching experience for those who enjoy the free play of one-on-one fighting. As more details emerge and other groups are trained, updates will be forthcoming. 

Victory through Failure

In one of my interviews I was asked “Avi Nardia, who are you?” I answered to the host’s surprise “I’m a big failure… I’ve failed so many times that I lost the fear of losing which most people carry. Each failure brought me into a new place and a new adventure to study and improve.   

It reminded me of my days monitoring new recruits in top Special Forces training around the world and from so many, only a few were selected.  Some didn’t even manage to get through the first stage, and I used to tell people that most took that failure so hard, carrying that feeling of inadequacy in a bad way. My exhortation has always been – some people make it to the unit, and some make it in LIFE. Many people don’t understand that the purpose of life is to live… as simple as it sounds, no one who is a Navy seal or special forces is a success in life. Rambo is a fictitious character in a movie, but it’s really true that many carry emotional burdens and post-traumatic stress. To be a hero is not normal… being human is normal and so many pay with mental trauma and damage to family relationships by taking it to the extreme. Many people who didn’t go into Special Forces will be lawyers, writers, IT professionals and so on. Most will make way more money than if they had been in a Special Forces unit without having risked each day of their lives, undergoing constant physical and mental stress. Success is finding the right thing that you really wanted and pursuing it. I can agree with Robin Williams when he says that people don’t fake depression… they fake being okay.

Most people put up a façade, acting like everything is good in their life, but inside they’re afraid to fail. We want to see heroes, we need champions and society motivates people to be the biggest and the best and that’s why many always live in a state of constant competition, comparing themself to others while the true secret is to compare yourself to yourself yesterday and see how you progress from day to day.

We see it in sports and martial arts as everyone gets to their first class and the first question is “how long will it take me to get my Black Belt?”  From the first class, they are already looking for victory and that’s where they are lost, and we see many that don’t understand the real reason you join class is to study. Their first mistake is that they didn’t come to study, they came to earn a medal or try and prove their worth, many times because they are missing something deep inside, something that even becoming a champion and black belt will never solve because the issue is deep inside themselves.

When we study to fail and accept that failure, we study to win and how to deal with victory. There is a great quote again by Robin Williams – “Cocaine is God’s way of telling you, you’re making too much money.”

Many times, when people win the lottery or get rich overnight, they never study how to deal with that and ultimately, it destroys their life. 

In martial arts, I’ve seen many great people who, after winning and becoming a champion, they turn into a different person, putting on a new mask that they may not like. In the words of Jean Jacques Machado – “It’s great to train hard and become a champion, but it is greater to become a good human being.”

Those who have lived a full life and who have reached old age can look back on their lives and see their mistakes and smile. Some mistakes may have led to a new discovery or could have even been the source of fun and enjoyment. Certainly, most will look back and think better to have been sorry for what mistakes I have made than sorry I didn’t make those mistakes when I could… As we get older, we begin to see life in different ways and take our experiences as one long study of a well lived life. We don’t take failure hard as in the example before of the Navy Seal recruit, we smile and say “wow, god loves me enough that I failed and still managed be successful in the corporate world!” We see that the same failure that we thought was a setback and bad, in reality took us to a new place, gave us new success and a new study. 

Pursuing martial arts is a life-long study and not just a study for competition.

Not all people can be champions or Special Forces, but everyone can be his or her own family hero and success… many of us have been Special Forces or hero but failed when it came to the most important things in life. 

We fail, we study and when we get older and look back we see we collected so many failures that they become our greatest victory to win and manage to live life and stand up after each time we fall and that’s the real measure of a champion.

People come and go in your life, but the person in the mirror will always be there, so be good to yourself because if you’re friends with yourself, you will never be alone. Understand the Zen mindset and concepts for life and they will server as a tool in your martial arts journey. 

THE touchable and the untouchable

The art of defense when observing the touchable and the untouchable

All around the globe, we share the same anatomy yet are divided by religion, location, skin tone, the cultures and subcultures that guide our day to day activities and deeper. In this column, I would like to split humanity at large into two: the touchable and untouchable.

An armored knight in battles of old was as untouchable as can be and their opponents had to seek the opening in their armor to gain any leverage. So must we do.

A line can be drawn in the sand, dividing these two concerning almost everything, taxes, laws and how society casts it’s vote on their actions and words.

For the touchable, the law always apply and they are required to abide by all rules and regulations. At the same time, the untouchable is protected by the law and is unfettered by the responsibilities and consequences of their actions, protected by the same bodies that formulate and apply the laws.

These untouchables are politicians, governmental authorities, and judges, even actors, religious leaders and the wealthy are able to dodge the consequences of the law, purchasing their way to freedom and happily exempt the penalties of their crime and the consequences of their actions.

Can we defend ourselves in this untouchable society and how? At day’s end, we are all human no matter if we are a part of the clergy, born to royalty or lower on the totem pole. In the last few months, I have had to entertain this issue as to how can a regular citizen protect themselves against these forces and defend one’s self.

Years back, I found myself up against a very well known judge armed with high-profile lawyers, all dedicated to bringing me down. While others were afraid to stand by my side and gave up, I smiled, God didn’t grant all the wisdom and intelligence to just these people who were coming to get me. This brought me back to the concepts of self-defense. In Krav Maga, they looks for the weakest part of your opponent, “No groin, no Krav Maga”, whereas in KAPAP we look at the strongest part, that’s why the concept is “No brain, no KAPAP”.

In the cyber realm, we are all equal the moment you have access to Wi-Fi, you’re a top Instagram model and I’m an elite Call of Duty soldier…Have you noticed the growing demand to POLICE the free internet, the last vestige of actual journalistic freedom?

Since the media is already on the side of the highest bidder, they are constantly heralding on behalf of the politicians and the wealthy. You already see this on social networks censoring the “wrong” opinions and attempting to control our minds by curating what everyone sees. Once a blog gains some popularity, there is already someone waiting to get their hands on it and control the message. It’s hard to trust the news as we all know CNN works for the CIA for example and many times certain opinions are blacked out or censored by the army of editors and producers when it goes against their narrative.

The first thing to understand in self defense is to never give up. While everyone else got a case of cold feet when they saw I was up against a established judge, the key was to understand that you never give up and you utilize all the tools you have at your disposal, but first and foremost your brain.

We can take twins and teach one of them how to move her body and the difference in a self defense situation will be start and primal. We can do the same within out minds.

The majority can be equated to a sleeping giant, able to regain control at any time when it wakes and takes charge. OTPOR and Serbian organization counting less than a hundred was a major factor to take down a dictator. OTPOR stands for resistance in Serbian. A reminder of the strength and power values such as truth and freedom can have.

Should we not as a community be strong by taking care of each other as the phalanx is strong by covering each other’s flanks in battle and in life and the same as we can do today as people by not letting each other fall to the pull of the regarded classes.

How do we defend ourselves against those who rise to deprive us of our liberty and evade the consequences of their crimes? There is a situation where a well-known Bishop assaulted my wife and struck her. Thankfully, she was able to employ some self-defense moves to protect herself and survive. Presently, the police are involved in the case and begin to act against those who think they are untouchable and as grassroots groups of martial artists, actors and women emerge from the US  beginning with Professor Machado BJJ and his well-known pupil Keanu Reeves, and around the world to show their support and join us in the fight so we can finally see some progress. Join us in the fight against those who think they can commit crimes and face no justice because of their connections with the powers at be and wealth. Stand up and say “NiSiSAMA” — NO MORE (in Serbian)! — no more exemptions from the law and consequences.Violence against the young and helpless cannot be met with silence. 

Welcome to the battle versus the untouchables.

Shooting as self-defense

Avi Nardia Academy – Shooting as self-defense 

” There is a tremendous difference between shooting methods that work well when you`re simply trying to put holes in the Target and those that work well when the target is trying to put holes in You ” . Col Rex Applegate 

Tactical  or operational shooting can claim their methods as Practical based on actual and practical performance, as they have been developed and upgraded over years of experience. Each day, we keep progressing on the field of Firearms, same as the Hand to hand. The Instinctive shooting method has distinct advantage that has proved itself highly effectively, time after time.
The guiding principle of the Instinctive shooting method is to quickly neutralize the threat in the simplest and most instinctive and natural way possible.

To achieve its high effectiveness, the tactical shooting method integrates: aggressiveness, determination, speed and accuracy. Stress and CHAOS as noise, rough vision conditions, fear and confusion, all factor and are introduced into the training  regime, in order to accustom trainees to the typical pressures associated with actual events. It has become the preferred choice of many professional agencies around the world, due to its simplicity which is based on the instinctive reaction to stimulus which occurs under stress. This training  Instruction will take you step by step to achieve superior handgun and rifle skills for rapid reaction in changing conditions.

We are dedicated to presenting professional firearms combat and tactical concepts with hand to hand situations and close-quarter situations that will prepare law Enforcement officers, first responders, armed professionals and civilians to prevail in deadly force confrontations by providing advanced Tactical Training and customized Anti-terrorism practical solutions.

The ICPS AKA the “Instinctive Combat method of Point Shooting is often regarded as a shooting style, when it is in fact a small percentage of what makes this method unique and extremely effective. The ICPS initial form was adapted from the FSA (Fairbairn, Sykes and Applegate) Point Shooting method, based on the shooter Instinctive reactions and Kinematics to quickly engage close range targets.

The major contributed change to ICPS occurred in the late months of 1974 with the establishment of the YAMAM , the first Israeli Police unit, fully dedicated to Counter Terrorism. Because of its specialty in Counter Terrorism, hostage rescue and extreme violent crime, the unit operateres in actual conflicts particularly in highly populated urban environments. This vast experience enabled the unit to develop comprehensive small arms training doctrines that were so effective, reliable and user friendly, it was generally accepted by all armed branches of the Israeli security forces such as the Secret Service (Shin Bet), Elite IDF Units, Israeli National Police , Border Police and other Intelligence and Counter Terrorism units.

Regarded as a Tactical Response and not as a shooting style, it incorporates all the necessary progressive battlefield tactical thinking, molded into a set of Instinctive actions and reactions for the operator. The Instinctive shooting method is radically different from other combat techniques; success is based on actual performance, not as score and more whether one survives a real gun fight.

The ICPS has the distinct advantage of proving itself effective time after time, probably more than any other method. It is literally practiced and perfected during daily performance by its core users. The guiding principle of the ICPS is to neutralize the threat in the quickest way possible, using the natural Instincts inherent in every human. Aggressiveness, determination and speed are integral elements of the ICPS method and proper mindset is heavily stressed.

Stress and pressure (High adrenaline levels) are introduced in the advanced stages of the training, in order to accustom trainees to pressure associated with actual events. This approach is especially geared towards deadly force on force situations rather than shooting competitions, where often times techniques which brings high levels of accuracy on the range, often fail under real life stress. 

This very same system has been taught to thousands of civilians from all walks of life around the world with great success rates in actual performance. The ICPS method has proved itself through experience, time after time to be well suited for the private citizen as well as to the Law Enforcement officer and the Combat soldier.  

Key advantages for learning ICPS:

·         Simple and easy to learn.
·         Involves Military and operational strategic thinking
·         Enhances body mechanics and muscle memory
·         Prepares the practitioner to deal with unexpected situations
·         Fast and useful CQB system
·         Elevates fighting spirit 
·         Elevates self-confidence
·         Incorporates Innovative and unique training methods
·         Applicable to all practitioners regardless of their size, strength, or gender                          
·         Tested under the most demanding conditions by Special Forces operators but also by Civilians


Lee Reznik 072120

Avi Nardia, founder of the Israeli martial art KAPAP, has taught all over the world, and his students range from slum children in Kenya to business tycoons. In a special interview to Israel Hayom, Nardia discusses what makes a champion, and why he is an excellent ambassador for Israel in the world.

Avi Nardia: We teach people to survive in the snow and ice with nothing more than a knife

You know how you watch James Bond films and wonder why the director felt it necessary to go overboard? There’s no way someone could un-cuff his hands while his feet are tied, disarm four guards, and escape through the window using a rope made of bedsheets.

But after speaking to Avi Nardia, none of that seems “overboard.”

“When I make a rope out of toilet paper my students are shocked,” Nardia tells Israel Hayom, speaking from his home in Belgrade.

“It’s not a problem. It’s like making a rope out of straw or wool. You need to roll the paper in a certain way, weave it, make all sorts of folds and then you have a really strong rope, one my students can’t tear,” he says.

Nardia, 58, travels the world, doing good and sometimes frightening PR work for Israel. He is a master of several different martial arts and used his cumulative knowledge to develop an Israeli martial art known as KAPAP, which is different from the Krav Maga the IDF teaches in basic training.

“Basically, there is fighting while on your feet, fighting on the ground, fighting with weapons, and by combining those I built an Israeli martial art – KAPAP. The basic Krav Maga was developed in the 1960s and is limited to the knowledge that was available back then. Today, fighting has become much more complex and demands more knowledge – falls, punches, and kicks. In addition, self-defense demands familiarity with weapons – knife-fighting, handguns, rifles, because a terrorist will usually jump you with a weapon and you have to know how to disarm him,” Nardia says.

“The improvement KAPAP offers is that it includes everything. I put in wilderness survival – in ice, snow, and desert conditions. We have a seminar called ‘Just a Knife,’ in which a participant is given a knife and we teach him how to use it as a survival tool – how to build shelter, make a fire, and each day we teach fighting,” he says.

Nardia discusses the problems with the traditional Krav Maga: “There is a Latin saying, ‘Beware of the person of one book,’ because a person who’s read only one book in his life and bases all his knowledge and opinions on that book is dangerous. That’s the limitation I see in the Krav Maga we know, which is based on one person’s knowledge that in my opinion wasn’t professional enough. If you want to be the best judoka in the world, you need to concentrate on judo. If you want to be the world champion in fencing, focus on fencing, but to practice self-defense, to be a warrior, you can’t focus on only one thing. You need absolute knowledge. That’s the difference between doing this as a sport and as self-defense.”

Q: Give an example.

“When I taught kendo [traditional Japanese swordsmanship] in Israel, at one lecture some punk shouts, ‘What crap! Who fights like that, with a sword? What’ll you do on the street?’ I brought him onstage and used my finger to do everything I’d been doing with the sword, and he was shocked. You need to know how to transform knowledge. I don’t give people fish, I teach them to fish. The moment I give you a fish – technique – you’ll have something to eat, but if I teach you to fish, I’ve taught you a concept.”

“Before I train people to hit, I train them to think. I always say, ‘No brain – no KAPAP.’ If you want to fight me and don’t use your brain, you’ll fail. A person has to think, that’s the most important muscle. I’m a small guy, not some giant. In the US I’d pick the biggest people [to demonstrate] at my seminars, people who weighed 150 kg. [over 300 pounds], to show how I, weighing 65 kg. [143 pounds] could win.

Nardia demonstrates how to disarm a knife-wielding assailant

“First of all, you need to teach people to think, not panic. We have natural fears of choking, of being buried alive, so I run the escape seminar – training in which I kidnap people and teach them to free themselves from handcuffs, from zip ties, from tape that binds them – how to psychologically survive all sorts of situations, how to function under pressure. It’s a whole process of building, not just ‘kick and run.’

“I wasn’t born a genius, but I’m a repository of experience and that is what makes me a good teacher. I’m not a master who gets attacked by 80 people from every direction and jumps in the air. That happens in people’s dreams. I’m a master as a teacher who can see who I’m facing what they have and, mainly, what they lack, and I know how to fix it. I see myself as a martial artist. Why ‘artist’? An artist takes a rock, gives it a few whacks with a hammer, and a sculpture appears. I take a living sculpture, a person, and create something amazing.”

After being cut from the Israeli Air Force’s pilots course, Nardia served as a security officer and Krav Maga instructor. There, he realized he was destined to teach and guide. In 1984, he flew to Tokyo to fulfill his dream of studying martial arts.

“At the time, there was no Google. Suddenly, I land at a Japanese airport and realize that I don’t know where to go, but I landed on my feet. After seven or eight years in Japan, I came back to Israel and someone whom I served with suggested that I be a bodyguard for something that was classified at the time: Russia’s education minister had a Jewish lover, they had a son together, and he would come visit them in Jerusalem. They rented a car for me and I accompanied the minister on all his visits in Israel,” Nardia says.

Later, he enlisted in the Israel Police’s Special Forces, taught self-defense, operational tactics, and riot dispersal tactics at the police’s combat physical fitness school, and taught martial arts at Tel Aviv University and Bar-Ilan University. Since then, he has taught elite anti-terror units all over the world.

“I can’t remember all the special forces [units] I’ve taught. Now I see pictures and suddenly remember that I taught there, too. I’ve trained a secret service unit here in Serbia, but my wife told me to stay away because it turned out that the unit wasn’t made up of normal people – half of them were criminals,” he says.

“Carlos Newton, who was MMA and UFC champion, was a student of mine from the age of 17. Joanna Jędrzejczyk [former UFC women’s champion], too. In Israel the top Brazilian jiu-jitsu fighters – Ido Pariente, Eran Barak, Ora Levine – are former students of mine. I’ve worked with the Israeli rugby team, with the ASA Tel Aviv handball team, and with women’s basketball. I dealt more with sports injuries and rehabilitation, and I saw a lot of mistakes by professional coaches who didn’t know how to get the most out of their athletes.”

Q: Explain.

“In terms of physicality, elite athletes get to a point where they’re all the same. From there, what makes them a champion is a bit more psychology, motivation, emotional strength that will give you that little bit more. When I saw Arik Ze’evi crying at the 2012 London Olympics [Ze’evi lost to Dimitri Petrus in 43 seconds], I told him, ‘I don’t know who trained you, but he did bad work.’ He taught him technique, not spirit. As a trainer you need to teach body, mind, and spirit. We all study the body. Mind is how you connect the exercises. Spirit is [Diego] Maradona, for example. He might be a terrible person, a drug user, I don’t know what, but he has it. We all do, but with most of us it’s turned off and we need someone I call a ‘psychopath’ to turn it that inner fire.”

“There was a time in the army when I was working with youths who didn’t want to serve, but after talking to me, wanted to go into elite units. You need to cause people to make a mental, psychological change. When an athlete starts looking for excuses, his fire has died out. When I worked with the handball players, when a player would catch he’d go back to defense like a peacock, but when he’d miss, all of a sudden he’d start moving his hand like he had some medical problem, and would look at me and make movements as if he had some problem with his shoulder. I’d fall over laughing. After they miss, they have the excuses ready right away.

“For example, players who aren’t starting bandage themselves two hours before the game. They aren’t playing because the coach didn’t put them in, but they’ll bandage their knee and say they don’t know if they can play. They have to justify themselves to themselves, so they tell everyone they’re injured.

Q: Is that especially noticeable with Israelis?

“The most. We look for excuses for everything. When I asked my father about his paratroop wings he told me, ‘Forget about stories of heroism, we did what we had to, and that’s all.’ Today, we have excuses for everything, in every area – roads, state, sports. I let all my students know that I need results, not excuses. I see improvement in the students I bring to the edge. I saw that with Carlos Newton, who was world champion, and now he wants to make a comeback. I told him what my terms were if he wanted me to train him: that he listen to me. Not hear, listen.  A lot of the time they hear you, but don’t listen to what you say.

“For example, I was [Russian-Israeli tycoon] Arkady Gaydamak’s personal trainer and martial arts teacher. He was my worst student. He’s unbelievably clumsy, untalented, no coordination, I don’t think he could pound a nail into the wall. He went a long way in martial arts. He had no physical abilities, but he wanted to learn badly. The problem was he would hear, but not listen … Eventually, he made some good progress, but if he’d listen, I could have taken him 10 times as far as he went.”

Q: Is it all a question of mentality?

“Everything. It’s all mental … The Japanese call it “chi.” It’s an internal force that you can’t turn on, there’s no button. If I try to attack your child, you’ll see your inner mother find strength and turn into a tiger. In nature you can see a cat beat back a bear when she’s defending her kittens, and she’s not playing. You need to know how to turn on that trigger.

“There is the psychological matter of how a person should see themselves. The first work that should be done with soccer players or basketball players is psychological – creating commitment, identification with what they do. Then you need to work on their spirit, how to ‘turn it on’ when they take the field and go into battle. If the player isn’t ‘on’ it won’t work, they’ll never reach their maximum. A lot of people don’t know how to get the most out of themselves.

Nardia has trained special forces squads all over the world

“It’s a lot of psychology, a lot of tricks – how in the space of a second do you turn them from the nicest people into fighters. They can’t run after the ball – they have to be given drills that will make them fight for it. So what if they took it away? Keep fighting. I’ve seen fights in which one fighter took the other apart and then, for his ego, started to swing his arm around for one last punch and suddenly, the opponent’s head turns on and he takes down the other guy in a knockout. In battle, it’s never certain who will win until the end. If I sent you to fight Arik Ze’evi and you think that he’ll win because he’s an Olympic medalist, you’ve already lost. Because of that thinking. People need to be taught to think properly. If I take on Arik Ze’evi, I’ll eat him alive. That’s how I think. Not out of ego, but because that’s how you should go into battle.

“There’s a saying I tell my students: ‘You can kill me, but you can’t defeat me.” When Arik Ze’evi lost, the opponent ‘killed’ him, but the moment he dropped and started to cry, then he was defeated because he broke mentally. When a woman is raped, she is ‘killed’ – but she shouldn’t let them win. When you can inculcate this mentality in athletes, it doesn’t matter if they lose, because they won’t see themselves as losers. So kids need to be taught how to lose. The other guy was better, faster? Fine, I’ll come next year, next game, and I’ll train harder. I have only one hand, and my opponent has two? Find, that’s the situation, but it’s not an excuse.”

Q: How has the coronavirus pandemic affected martial arts?

“I’ve spoken to a few very famous teachers who shut down their schools and won’t open again. Martial arts is one of the fields that has been hardest hit by corona, which I think is causing needless panic. They’ve made it into Ebola, but it’s the flu. It’s sad to me to see it wiping out our field, especially since martial arts aren’t a sport and don’t get government funding. Trainers don’t receive salaries, and they’ll go broke.”

Over the years, Nardia has founded martial arts academies in Africa as part of what he calls a “social mitzvah.”

“I support schools in slums in Mombasa and in Kibera, and send them money so children there will walk a good path, rather than fall into crime. In Africa there are already 10 kids named Avi Nardia. Sadly, one of them died three months ago. It’s an honor that people are naming their kids after me, and it’s because I also teach morals and values. I won’t take on people who will go on to use what I teach them to do bad things.

“In one of the women’s seminars, where I teach how to escape all sorts of situations like attempted assault or rape, there was a student who asked me, while I was working with one of the women, ‘How can I grab her so she can’t get away?” I picked him up and smacked him in front of everyone and told him, ‘Get out, you’re a rapist.’ I could actually feel that he was a rapist who had come to learn what to do. I’m not ashamed to kick students out. When I see that something is wrong, I stop. When people ask me what they need to learn KAPAP I say, integrity. Do the right thing even when no one is watching, and that’s something lacking in a lot of martial arts.”

“I own a knife from [former Libyan dictator Muammar] Gaddafi’s collection that one of my students gave me after [Gaddafi] was executed. This was a kid who was there during the revolution, who walks around Libya wearing a shirt that has KAPAP written on it. My students have been training in Indonesia and Libya wearing KAPAP shirts for close to 15 years. My biggest achievement is that I teach in the city of Dachau. I taught there at a school in the industrial zone and from the window we could see the guard towers of the concentration camp. It was surreal that I, wearing a black shirt with a huge Star of David with KAPAP written on it, and everyone knowing I’m Jewish and Israeli, was teaching an Israeli martial art there.”

Q: Have you encountered anti-Semitism in your travels around the world?

“No. Maybe I wasn’t looking for it, and maybe it doesn’t exist in the way people talk about it. During the riots in the US, there were awful things there. Among other things, they spray-painted something about Palestine on a synagogue and immediately people rushed to say it was anti-Semitism, but when hooligans take to the streets all the hooligans show up.

“When I arrive in Israel, there’s a guy from Umm al-Fahm who has shown up for four seminars already to train and learn. I think that in sports and martial arts, we connect more as human beings. Salah al-Majaj, the son of former mayor of east Jerusalem Amin al-Majaj, trained with me. There were pilots and people from the Sayeret Matkal unit studying with me who said, ‘But he’s an Arab,’ and I told them, ‘That’s it. Anyone who want to leave, should leave.’ Kendo is a sport and I don’t mix politics and sports.”

“A few years ago, I land in Australia for a course and right away see that there are a few Arabs in the group. I grab two, give them a high-five, and put them next to the Israeli flag and make everyone stand for a group picture. I see that they’re going nuts but are afraid of me. Later, one of the guys took us all out for a meal and at the restaurant pulled out a roll of hundreds of dollars. I say, ‘Tell me who you are’ and he says, ‘I’m the son of the biggest drug dealer in Lebanon. I ran away from my father. I don’t want to be involved with crime and drugs, so I moved to Australia.’ He fell so much in love with KAPAP that he’d go to the Lebanese neighborhood in Australia wearing our shirt, which has KAPAP written on it in Hebrew and Israeli Special Forces written on it in English.”

Q: You define yourself as Israel’s ambassador to the world.

“Definitely, and I’m a good ambassador. I have students who studied karate for 20 years and never hung a Japanese flag in their schools, but when they started studying with me and then began KAPAP they hung an Israeli flag. That’s one of the things that makes an Israeli martial art unique – first of all, we hang the flag. Israel teaches purity of arms, morality, values, and a moral army. That’s what I try to teach people, not because I’m a hero or anything, but because it’s something my father taught me – morals, values, and love for Israel.”


KIbera – Czech report


„Žít v srdcích, která zde zanecháváme, znamená nezemřít.“ – Thomas Campbell

Život vás neklame a nelže vám. Není fér. A kdo tvrdí, že vnímat život jako nefér je jen jedním ze způsobů vnímání, neříká úplnou pravdu. Když se narodíte v zemi, kde jsou každému snadno dostupné jídlo, voda, vzdělání a zaměstnání, pak možná může být tvrzení, že život je o způsobu vnímání a o tom, jak se rozhodnete reagovat na obtížné věci, pravdivé.

Kibera – místo, kde se o sny bojuje

Pro mnohé lidi na tomto světě jsou ale tyto výsady a příležitosti pouhým snem. Snem o dostatku potravin, vody, vzdělání, bezpečí a útočišti. Příkladem místa, kde plných lidských práv a základních lidských potřeb nebylo ještě dosaženo, je slum Kibera, kde děti den za dnem pracují na dosažení tohoto snu. Podílí se na budování světa, ve kterém každý člověk má možnost dosáhnout toho, co si zvolí. Každý den vstupují do svého „dojo“ ve slumu, a posílají tak nám všem silnou a smysluplnou zprávu: „Jsme hodni příležitosti, jsme silní a schopní a svět ať nás spatří vyzařovat naději.“

Věříme v budování světa, ve kterém každé dítě má šanci dosáhnout toho, o co se rozhodne usilovat. A věříme, že poselství dětí ze slumu Kibera zasáhne mnoho srdcí a pomůže nám všem k růstu.

Avi Nardia Academy – podpora projektu SHOFCO

My, skupina mistrů bojových umění spojených Avi Nardia Academy, jsme proto vyslyšeli potřeby těchto dětí a rozhodli jsme se pomoci jim trénovat v bezpečnějším, řízeném prostředí. Prvním krokem bylo pořízení podložek na judo, aby děti mohly trénovat také na zemi namísto dosavadního pouhého trénování kopů a úderů. Avi Nardia Academy celkově věnovala 10 tisíc dolarů na vybavení a také jídlo a další potřeby.

Moje manželka Aleksandra Nardia v lednu 2020 s podporou zakladatele SHOFCO (Shining Hope for Communities) Kennedyho Odede odcestovala do Keni, aby dětem ze slumů poskytla základní vybavení, které by každá škola bojových umění měla mít (jako například již zmíněné podložky na judo, tréninkové hole, sportovní úbory).

Za zmínku rozhodně stojí, že část programu v Kibera Martial Arts School se věnuje také hodinám čtení a umění a instruktoři bojových umění se starají o to, aby se děti během dne věnovaly kvalitnímu programu i mimo pravidelnou školní docházku. Mají možnost navštěvovat například hudební výuku, lekce tance nebo kurzy zaměřené na architekturu.

My, kteří jsme se narodili do prostředí, ve kterém nemusíme čelit nedostatku základních lidských potřeb, bychom si všichni měli položit otázku: Jak můžeme pomoci takovým komunitám, jako jsou děti ze slumu Kibera, abychom jejich svět učinili trochu lepším místem?

Avi Nardia & Aleksandra Nardia

S poděkováním všem přátelům a instruktorům, kteří pomáhají dětem ze slumu Kibera, Alfredu Tuccimu za publikování článků o nich a Kennedymu Odede za to, že nám umožnil být součástí tohoto skvělého projektu v Keni.

(redakčně upraveno)


Kibera je největší slum v Nairobi a největší městský slum v Africe. Většina obyvatel slumu Kibera žije v extrémní chudobě, s příjmem méně než 1 dolar na den. Míra nezaměstnanosti je zde vysoká, v oblasti je jen několik málo škol a většina lidí si nemůže pro své děti dovolit vzdělání. Většina místních obyvatel nemá přístup k pitné vodě, lékařskému ošetření ani elektřině.

Shining Hope for Communities (SHOFCO), hnutí založené Kennedym Odede, který sám v Kibeře vyrůstal, se zde a v dalších městských slumech podílí na mnoha aktivitách s cílem jejich transformace, zajištění kritických služeb, ochrany práv, vzdělání a rozvoje. Mimo jiné ve spolupráci s komunitami slumu pracují na zajištění pitné vody, úklidu, výstavbě škol či zpřístupnění zdravotní péče.

Avi Nardia je světově uznávaný mistr bojových umění s více než 50 lety zkušeností v oblasti bojových umění a boje blízka. Od útlého věku trénoval izraelský systém Kapap. Dále mimo jiné v Japonsku studoval Jiu Jitsu, Karate a Kendo a dosáhl v nich pátého danu. Svou podobu systému Kapap neustále rozvíjí a upravuje, v úzké spolupráci s profesorem Johnem Machado do něj například zařadil techniky z BJJ. Desítky let Avi Nardia cestuje po celém světě a vyučuje. Řídí se přitom vždy svým heslem: „Sometimes a teacher, always a student“ (Někdy učitel, vždy student)…

Hand Gun-Fu and Weapon-Do

Hand Gun-Fu and Weapon-Do
© Copyright 2019 Avi Nardia

Normally I’m not a fan of “Tactical Civilians” or “Weekend Warriors” as we say after the war the bar is loaded with heroes and in the CQB Market as many civilians want to play paintball and air soft and war games become fun. I’m not a big fan of civilians surrounding a hero ex-soldier who’s telling them war stories while they all look at him like kids with shiny eyes. I’m not a fan of civilians in uniform to respect the military and police code ‘serve and protect’ while the moral ethic is to dress in a uniform and take lives; it isn’t a game and we need to have a greater understanding and compassion to ensure we aren’t training psychopaths or wannabe heroes, which is why I stay away from these styles and when I teach I try pass the military code and ethics as moral and remind all the Guns kill even if we use for sport so safety first and last . 

When KAPAP Krav Maga started incorporating firearms training as part of its “System” more than 30 years ago, many claimed that firearms are NOT part of martial arts and today I’m happy KAPAP WIN in a way and see that many understand that in the modern era, the weapon we face in terrorist attacks and the majority of crimes are not the Nunchako or Baton. As more and more Martial Arts start to see the advancement of combatives study, I find myself teaching CQB / CQC and high-risk entries with civilians more often. As such, I have decided to take the time to write about CQB and high risk situations more, cover and concealment, dealing with an active shooter or terrorist in the hopes that some may find useful information and good education for using the proper terminology of CQB. 

Remember that some can be good shooter but bad fighter and we prefer to develop the fighting spirit and not only teaching people to be good shooters but also to handle aggressive situations to deal with reality and violence. 

CQC (Close-Quarter Combat) vs. CQB (Close-Quarter Battle) vs. H2H (Hand to Hand)

CQC (Close-Quarter Combat) and CQB (Close-Quarter Battle) are military terms which designate the whole topic of unarmed and armed combatives. H2H (Hand to Hand) is generally considered to be part of this nowadays, the terms having been coined after the Second World War by the British Forces. Names such as Fairbairn, Sykes and Colonel Applegate considered any type of combat under 15 to 18 meters as CQC (Close Quarter Combat). As battle terms, they were correct since much of the fighting took place within urban, suburban and country settings. This type of combat could be carried out with hand-grenades, machines, trench tools (shovels) in numerous instances, cudgels, fixed bayonets, knives and even hand-to-hand.

H2H (Hand to Hand) designates unarmed combat that is fought chest to chest or face to face and describes the group of techniques that have been developed to defeat the enemy with one’s natural bare weapons (hands, feet, etc.), usually in circumstances where there is not the option of using guns or there are malfunctions.

CQC (Close-Quarter Combat) and CQB (Close Quarter Battle) are military terms which designate the whole topic of unarmed and armed combatives. Armed and unarmed conflict is covered by CQC impact weapons, edged weapons and adapted weapons (everyday items which in critical incidents can be used as weapons). H2H (Hand to Hand) is generally considered to be part of this nowadays, while the term CQB Covers armed-offence utilizing firearms (with the use of sights, depending on the distance). All of this is taught in a single system. 

Combatives systems use both CQC and CQB in order to be effective in real life situations we may face.

Civilians combative group, concentrate on the CQC portion which is primarily focused on the striking aspect with only basic physical weapons. This needs to be called “CIVILIAN COMBATIVES” while the army may use more CQB and also heavy weapons, machine guns, helicopters, air force and so on for more long distance engagements. 

True Combatives strive to keep training as realistic as possible, the argument being what is realistic for civilians should be thought of as self-defense, in that it is NOT exactly combative in nature.

In Combatives we have a “self-protection” mindset and not a “self-defense” mindset. This means that we actively protect ourselves so we don’t have to get to the point of defending ourselves (by attacking our assailant). we are proactive(so as not to allow surprise assault) and “awareness” is our first line of defense. Conversely the “self-defense” mindset is reactive(having already been assaulted), wherein “reaction” is the first line of defense. also in Combative mind we MUST deal with violence as law enforcement or Army while civilian want to prevent and NOT engagement and avoided and need understand different between combative and self defense .and today we mixing in between and use some parts of Combative in self defense BUT need remember that once get a way to avoid is best and if not you may get into Combative.

 The “self-defense” school of thought has 4 main reasons for its ineffectiveness and failures:

  1. Too many techniques– it is best to have a few worked to expert level.
  2. Non-realistic training– full physical contact, vocalization and multiple assailants is a must.
  3. No adrenal stress– a real violent confrontation can leave you shivering from adrenaline secretions to say the least, if not puking and standing in a puddle of your own urine.
  4. Defensive thinking– real violence often requires offensive and sometimes pre-emptive mindset.

Combatives program techniques use role play and scenario training for the street which is complemented with safe physical contact to “harden” practitioners with “stress tempering” to make them offensively oriented.

In this line of thinking, it is critical to maintain simplicity, directness, brutal effectiveness and determination. 

IBT (Initiative Based Tactics) in CQB:

The principles of IBT are quick and decisive action in high-stress, high-risk situations. Speed, surprise and violence of action are key principles which are designed to overwhelm and opponent and leave them no time to react, defeating them before they’ve prepared to fight. 

  1. Speed– coordinated ‘flood’ of individuals into a particular area of engagement, moving quickly but without being detected as so to be in the most advantageous position at the onset of action. This requires a high level of teamwork between operators involved, with clearly defined roles and a unifying plan
  2. Surprise– The idea of surprise is to be in an ideal and undetected position at the onset of action, without the presence of the operators being known. Optimally, at the onset of action, the attackers are unable to react quickly enough or to entrench themselves in a fortified position.
  3. Violence of Action– it is essential to dominate your opponent physically and psychologically with sensory overload. Multiple entry points, breaching explosives, aggressive assault, flashbangs or smoke, gunfire and any other technique to overload the opponent’s senses. 

In order to achieve these principles, it is essential to act with determination. Eyes and head should be up at all times, shooting accurately while in motion is essential, move quickly to trouble areas and handle them proactively, not reactively. These techniques need to be trained and drilled until they pass into the subconscious as well as drilling in teams. 

Cover and concealment – Both can save your life, but one more than the other.

In many training classes, you have probably heard the instructor say “you need to get to cover.” If a fight erupts around you, you want to get to cover before returning fire. Standing out in the open is a great way to get shot and the number one rule of a gunfight is not to get shot. 

Cover is the place you want to be when bullets start flying because it is any place that will stop bullets. A concrete wall, a telephone pole, a car’s engine block, these are all places where you can hide and know that a bullet will not pass through and hit you. It can be said that cover hides you from a bullet. 

The difference between cover and concealment is simple. If it doesn’t stop a bullet, then it is considered to be concealment because that is all it’s doing – concealing your location. Cover is something that will not only conceal your location but stop a bullet as well. 

We can create concelment with smoke granade and Camouflage and more

We can use concealment to not be found in situations where cover is not available, in addition to using it as we move and fire back, but it is not as safe as real cover. 

You gun fire is your first concelment

Basic pistol positions

Sul Position:

The sul position means south in Portuguese and was developed because those training in the police academy had poor muzzle control with their pistols. This position has become a ‘tacticool’ technique, with many operators using this position both to ensure the muzzle is pointed in a safe direction, but also when in a dangerous environment, yet not directly exposed to threats. 

The Sul position consists of placing your support hand on your stomach with the thumb up and other four fingers together parallel to the ground. The active hand is parallel with the body and the muzzle at a slight cant to prevent it from shooting your feet. The thumbs are touching as a reference and to ensure you maintain the position safely. 

This position has grown in popularity in recent years and is effective while moving and in confined spaces. One can also transition into a ready position quickly, though not quite as fast as some other positions, as we will see. 

High Ready Position:

High Ready is the fastest position from which to engage with a potential target, with the pistol in front of your face, arms extended, yet with the elbows at a relaxed angle. However, this position may limit your mobility and may not be viable in crowded environments or where the muzzle should be kept in a safe direction.

Low Ready Position (Traditional and Modified):

The traditional low ready position is when the gun is effectively in high ready with arms extended and both hands on the grip of the pistol, however, the arms are extended at a 45 degree angle downward to remain pointed in a safe direction. The modified position is essentially the same, but with the arms angled a bit higher, between high ready and low ready to allow for quicker action on the part of the operator. 

These positions are designed to allow quick target acquisition of any potential threat that one may encounter, but still could pose issues when working in dynamic environments or with other team members. Any sideways turning movements could pose a potential risk to other members of your team as your pistol would be pointing at their legs. It could also be unviable in confined environments or where the extension of your arms could pose a risk for exposure and giving away your position. In all positions, but particularly this one, situational awareness is critical to performing safely. 

Compressed Ready Position:

Similar to the high ready position, the compressed ready position has the muzzle of the gun pointed forward, though the elbows are at tight to your ribs and with your head ‘tucked’ in a bit. This allows for quick target acquisition and engagement, while maintaining better mobility and weapon retention. This also works in confined environments, but poses some of the same disadvantages as high ready, insomuch as the muzzle direction is not necessarily safe in populated or unknown environments.

Temple Index position:

Like Sul, the Temple Index uses a physical point of contact as a reference for muzzle direction, but that is where the similarities end. This position is achieved by placing your pistol to the side of your temple, your pinky, ring and middle fingers in direct contact with your temple and the muzzle of the pistol faced upward.

This position is effective for maintaining muzzle control and weapon retention in situations where a high level of mobility is required. It has the added benefit of the free use of your support hand to assist in situations where the use of this hand is necessary. 

CAR (Center Axis Relock) Position:

Developed by law enforcement officer and instructor, Paul Castle, the Center Axis Relock position is an aggressive stance, though can be employed effectively in certain environments. With the muzzle pointed forward and the support foot forward and both hands on the grip of the pistol, the arms are somewhat closer to the body and therefore the gun remains closer to the body. The pistol is at a cant, such that the left eye is looking down the sights of the pistol.

CAR provides effective pistol retention and a compact position from which one can be relatively mobile and quickly engage with targets. It is also particularly useful in compact areas. This has recently gained popularity due to its employment in the John Wick movies, by the protagonist himself. 

Room clearing         Cover Rule – “less seen of you and more seen of them” and “Multiple muzzle of us against one of them – fire power “

two main kind fast or slower as Dynamic entry and deliberate entry

An important aspect of room combat is the use of areas of responsibility, or individual AORs.
By dividing a room into pie like sections, the room can be cleared far faster than when all operators try to cover all areas at the same time.

  1. Pointman and wingman

The point man is never wrong principle:

If the point man goes to the right, then the shooter behind him will have to buttonhookto the left.

The Point manis the soldier who takes point, who assumes the first and most exposed position in a combat military formation. He is the lead soldier/unit advancing through hostile or unsecured territory and therefore is first exposed to enemy fire.

The Wingman acts as the partner to the point man, working cooperatively when approaching doors and entering high risk areas. The term originated in combat aviation, so named due to the support individual being to the side and slightly behind the lead pilot, or on his “wing”, while providing support and cover to the lead pilot. 

  • Room shape – Box , L – shape , door locations center or attach to wall , half walls, window – door sizes ( how many team members can in )  , corridors, furniture’s , Lights and sound effecting ( sun shadow, what lights in , noise , traps )  architect plan 
  • Clearing rooms

Key terms:

  1. AOR (Area of Responsibility)– Refers to the specific segment or ‘slice’ of a room or area of engagement that each operator will need to cover and clear to ensure efficiency of movement and clarity of action.
  2. Chokepoint– any point at which the entry or exit of an area becomes limited. Doorways in rooms are a prime example of a chokepoint and where firearms are present, this is also known as the “fatal funnel”
  3. OODA (Observe, Orient, Decide, Act)– a decision-making process by which operators arrive at a particular action. The training of this loop over time makes one cognizant of the inputs that they are receiving in high-stress situations (and can also be applied to day-to-day situations), such that they can identify and react to stimuli more rapidly than their opponents. 


This technique is used as a pre-entry maneuver, the operator exposing only his eye for a moment as he observes an uncleared room. While good in environments where it is unknown whether the individuals inside are combatants or civilians, the risk of detection is high and may complicate the subsequent entry as the element of surprise will have been lost. Additionally, this is not to be used in situations where the wall is not suitable cover, as you will still be susceptible to attacks if bullets can penetrate the wall which the operator is standing behind. 


An aggressive movement where two operators simultaneously enter a room and hook around the doorway to move rapidly along the inner wall of the room which they are entering. This allows for rapid entry and minimal time spent within the Fatal Funnel. 


Essentially the converse of the Buttonhook, the crossover consists of two operators entering a room nearly simultaneously by crossing through the doorway to the opposite side of where they began. This provides a quick entry and minimal time in the fatal funnel, though the operators need to be coordinated as so not to run into each other. 

Slicing the pie:

Slicing the pie is a technique used for gradual observation of an area, consisting of slowly moving around a corner or obstacle with their weapon trained on the space directly visible (at the edge of the obstacle or corner) and with the upper body leaning slightly into the area being cleared as so not to expose the feet and legs. This technique is not only for entering rooms, but may be used in open environments with large obstacles which could be concealing an enemy. This is often preferred to other clearing tactics as it doesn’t launch you into unknown territory and allows you to slowly and deliberately clear every inch of the room.

Incremental method:

Similar to slicing the pie, the incremental method moves around obstacles in a similar motion, but instead of a gradual movement, the movements are stop-start motions incrementally clearing the entire room or area. 

Rules of clearing rooms:

  1. Muzzle before Flesh – the muzzle should always be the first exposed before the body, protecting the operator from return fire and also allowing them to ‘hide’ behind cover fire in the case that they are under attack.
  2. Do not stop in doorways –doors should be cleared as quickly as possible to minimize time spent in the Fatal Funnel.
  3. Never move faster than you can (accurately) shoot –don’t sacrifice your ability to neutralize threats for mobility, otherwise you will be identified before you can react.
  4. Maintain muzzle control at all times – Don’t point your muzzle at anyone’s back while working in teams. 

Kapap – Wikipedia

KAPAP – Israeli Krav Maga – Martial Art of the Holy Land


Combats and combative in the Holy land take to Bible times and first Jewish living in the Holy Land called today Israel

Jewish Combats with  Roman times and before and Greeks or Hellenes 

The Hasmoneans were the dynasty royalty Judith ruled in the land of Israel and some from the Hellenistic period in Israel , in the 2nd century BC to the first century BC .

On 29 November 1947, the United Nations General Assembly adopted a Partition Plan for Mandatory Palestine. This specified borders for new Arab and Jewish states and an area of Jerusalem which was to be administered by the UN under an international regime. The end of the British Mandate for Palestine was set for midnight on 14 May 1948

The names Land of Israel and Children of Israel have historically been used to refer to the biblical Kingdom of Israel and the entire Jewish people respectively.The name “Israel”  often interpreted as “struggle with God” in these phrases refers to the patriarch Jacob who, according to the Hebrew Bible, was given the name after he successfully wrestled with the angel of the Lord. Jacob’s twelve sons became the ancestors of the Israelites, also known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Children of Israel. Jacob and his sons had lived in Canaan but were forced by famine to go into Egypt for four generations, lasting 430 years, until Moses, a great-great grandson of Jacob, led the Israelites back into Canaan during the “Exodus”. The earliest known archaeological artifact to mention the word “Israel” is the Merneptah Stele of ancient Egypt (dated to the late 13th century BCE).

The area is also known as the Holy Land, being holy for all Abrahamic religions including Judaism, Christianity, Islam and the Bahá’í Faith. From 1920, the whole region was known as Palestine (under British Mandate) until the Israeli Declaration of Independence of 1948.Through the centuries, the territory was known by a variety of other names, including Judea, Samaria, Southern Syria, Syria Palaestina, Kingdom of Jerusalem, Iudaea Province, Coele-Syria, Djahy, and Canaan.

Kapap – Israeli Krav Maga take us to same land around the years as 1900

From First names to be on records as Self defense and Martial arts

Moshe Feldenkrais was born in the Russian Empire. In 1918, he immigrated to Palestine.He worked as a laborer and obtained his high-school diploma from Gymnasia Herzliya in 1925. After graduation, he worked as a cartographer for the British survey office and began to study self-defense, including Ju-Jitsu. A soccer injury in 1929 promoted the development of his method in later years.

During the 1930s, he lived in France where he earned his engineering degree from the École Spéciale des Travaux Publics, and later his Doctor of Science in engineering at the Sorbonne where Marie Curie was one of his teachers.[6] During this time he worked as a research assistant to nuclear chemist and Nobel Prize laureate Frédéric Joliot-Curie at the Radium Institute. In September 1933, he met Jigoro Kano, the founder of judo in Paris. Kano encouraged him to study Judo under Mikinosuke Kawaishi. Feldenkrais became a close friend of Kano and corresponded with him regularly.[7] In 1936, he earned a black belt in judo, and later gained his 2nd degree black belt in 1938. He was a co-founding member of the Ju-Jitsu Club de France, one of the oldest Judo clubs in Europe, which still exists today. Frédéric, Irène Joliot-Curie, and Bertrand Goldschmidt took Judo lessons from him during their time together at the institute.

Krav Maga as a term appears from the fisrt time in the IDF in 1948 but in IDF dictunary oon 1965 it was not difined yet and its turn used after the KAPAP to difined Hand tO Hand 

Krav Maga and Kapap are terms used interchangeably for the same body but not always same  knowlwdge (techniques and drills) in the IDF for the entire decade 1948-1958

“Judo Shimushi ” – ” Practical Judo ” (Useful/Practical/applicable – Judo) was a term also used interchangeably with Krav Maga and Kapap.

 A manual under the title of “Judo Shimushi ” Practical Judo “was published in 1947/48. The manual is dedicated to the memory of Gershon Kopler and Yehuda Markus. It attributes to them the compilation of this hand to hand combat body of knowledge, and organizing it under a methodical way of practice (I.e. systemizing it).

 This manual served as the main reference book for all Krav Maga/ Kapap courses in the school for physical training, where all hand to hand combat instructors were trained , The manual sereved as the main reference until 1960 when a hand to hand combat manual titled Krav Maga was published.

 The publication of the 1960 manual does not imply a change in the system or some revision. It is simply an indication that the name Krav Maga became the preferred term of use and that it was time to make a new manual reflecting the present state of Krav Maga or hand to hand combat in the IDF.

Kapap was developed in Mandatory Palestine by a group of instructors during the 1930’s and 1940’s. the main body of it was organized and taught . Kapap and KM are one and the same until at least 1958

 The hand to hand combat curriculum  was adopted in the most part from that practiced in the Palmach.

Hand to hand combat (Kapap) is a concept inclusive which first appeared among the defense forces of the Jewish community that is protection in 1940 and refers to the total subjects fighting with bare hands and weapons cold Bhtiitm combat – military, we had an application that is not sporty. Occupation This fighting is called Kappa “P. marked change in the attitude of the Haganah and beyond conception defensive as reflected in the concept of sports protective, aggressive approach. Sports Star of pre-term Kapap and was used during the second half of the 30s of the 20th century. It is difficult to value the term Kapap system as we understand it today methods of combat and certainly not to read historical Kapap martial art in the modern sense of this concept

Kapap formed professional practice guideline approach contained therein. These subjects were studied individually and together as a system integrated. This approach continued into the IDF in the 50s and was the basis of the method now called Krav Maga. The concept of Krav Maga and Kapap were used in parallel with respect to this profession in the IDF until the end of the fifties. Unlike methods of fighting and martial arts these days before the State did not have a headboard and a leading figure not one. Contents learned edited by teachers and counselors lead all professionals and have been prepared and developed over the years as a result of preoccupation with them. Total practical and methodological knowledge called Kapap and practice of systematically done during the 30s and 40s of the 20th century, especially in the Palmach and the IDF a decade later after the establishment of the State of Israel.

Although there is no way to apply Kapap an organizational structure similar to that practiced methods is now possible to identify key figures in various positions that led to the development of this area . Areas of activity encompass : practical training , content authoring and development of training methods , research didactic , management courses and training facilities , the creation of training facilities and training . discipline taught as part of Kapap : boxing , jujutsu ( judo acts ) , a knife , short stick ( those ) stick length ( in fact called ‘ stick trip or Indian method , and was based on French – British incarnation of the latter method Kana – French , without the knowledge of local guides ) , stone throwing and javelin ( Spear )

Modern Kapap is based on the principle of fighting Kapap historical and military incarnation and who for training Fighting face to face with their bare hands and using only basic tools. Kapap there are a number of approaches and to adapt it to the needs of each one: a man security forces, security guard person on the street and so on.

Before the state was Kapap teach youth movements in frames pre-military training and as part of the incentive to raise Haganah and Palmach.

Today Kapap with a stick taught amateur (non-professional), mountaineering camp of Working and Studying Youth, Education as a method for connecting members layer G motion connection between tradition and youth national protective agencies, past and present (IDF), and as a kind of ” reconstruction “of past youth

Key figures – First developers on the 1930 : Gershon Kofler , Yitzhak Stiebel , live Heinrich Cohen Emanuel Gil , Kurt Benjamin .

1940 added : Moshele Horowitz , Yehuda Marcus , Joshua Globerman , Akiva Atzmon , Amos Golani , Musa glow Finkel , Raphael Atlas .

Other prominent directories : Joe dove , heartfelt Solomon , Avraham Adan , Micha Perry , Uzi Nemirovsky , Paul Beaver , Imi Lichtenfeld , Giora Shanan , open Zaid , David Levy .

Moshe Feldenkriez RIP been also from first Israeli Martial Artist and post books and as Avi Nardia reserch KAPAP and visted in Mishel Horovitz RIP home in Heftziva Kibutz he was handed by Mishel Horovitz that was head Instructor for KAPAP to the Palmah in old days KAPAP and he show Avi Nardia few Manuel Books he used and than Been in used and Including the bok by Moshe Feldenkries Practical Unarmed combat and some how many forget to mention the name Moshe Feldenkries but reserch show he was a greta contributer to Israeli Martial Arts old days and modern he said in his intervew many start training Jiujutsu and the guys that been hero just died during the combats as Gerson Kupler whom train 23 young team to go Lebanon for some comando attack and all lost including Gerson Kuppler RIP which was from Main KAPAP instructors in old days and form the words of Arie Tepler as been his student say for Gerson Kupler – I knew Only one brave guy name Gerson Kupler RIP , he was Sport and drill sargent in Austrian army before he immigrant to Israel and bring with him the knowlage for KAPAP as base for the Krav Maga in Hagana training he teach also walk on ropes and military wrestling 

Some of Moshe Feldenkrize steps in Martial art and self defense

1918- at the age 0f 14 immigrant to Israel and lived for 6 month

1921- at age 17 start study Jiujutsu

1920 – 1930 Been part of Hagana on combats against Arabs

1928 Developing Self Defense system 

1930 Publish Jiujutsu and Self Defense book

1932 Open Judo Club in France 

1933 Meeting Gigaro Kano Judo Founder in Franceand start study Judo

1934 Publish in France language the Book Self Defense 

1938 Publish Judo Book A.B.C Du Judo

1940 Escap from France to England and Start tecah in there Judo. 

1941 Publish Judo – The Art of Defense and Attack

1942 Publish book – Practical Unarmed Combat

1946 teach team from Israel that come to UK study with him from Hagana 

1948 Partner of opening Europe Judo Federation and voted to manager it

1952 publish Higher Judo book


Occupational battle face – to-face ancient roots among all peoples as did the Jewish people . Since the beginning of the new settlement in Palestine , at the end of the 19th century , Jewish settlers took defensive skills to attack Arabs .

Parallel to the development of the community and its various defense forces , evolved combat Occupational face – to-face . Practice it received a significant boost during the 30s of the 20th century , in the ” operating companies ” , a paramilitary arm of the World . Although this body does not belong to defense , actually is his command of David Ben – Gurion, Histadrut and senior Haganah . Can be attributed to the Great Arab Revolt decisive influence on professional development for face – to-face serve as a catalyst to formulate a defense force military community and offensive approach in fighting different defense policy of restraint for most of the 30s .

Establishment of the Palmach mobilized military arm of the defense was another stage in the evolution of Kapap. As part of this body were concentrated in the best guides combat professions face-to-face rows of defense and youth movements in Palestine, particularly “youth worker” and Hamahanot immigrants “.

Although the term Kapap first appeared in 1940, many of its contents were processed in the 30s in the “operating companies”, especially in boxing and jujutsu. Practice javelin received a boost during the Great Arab Revolt and established a special frameworks, such as police communities notarot Hebrews and the special night squads under the command of Orde Wingate. however short stick fighting method developed in the framework of the “immigrant camps”.

1941 is a key year in the development of Kapap . In January – February 1941 Kapap course is defending commanders and May of that year immediately after the establishment of the Palmach Kapap instructors course is this framework . Both of these courses are used in line and how to transfer content and promote the integration of subjects across the Haganah . Activity Hhg”m and Youth Corps helped this trend of assimilation and distribution of Kapap spread among youth in the community . Throughout the 40s held training courses and training Kapap very large scale . In the second half Kapap training to expand beyond the borders of the land surrounding them with the Cyprus detention camps and displaced persons camps in Europe .

With the establishment of the state , and the establishment of the IDF infrastructure protection organization has led occupation Kapap field of responsibility of physical training service under the command of Moshe Finkel glow . The service industry has become a physical training exercise at the beginning of the 50s of the 20th century and treated Kapap development , training manuals IDF troops and supervision of their work . During the ’50s , penetrating new concept using professional attitude combat and combat . At the end of a decade that is used to define these two concepts completely disappeared field use of the term Kapap .

on 2000 after No one used the turm KAPAP any more in Israel or out side Avi Nardia setting new self defense program to Top Israeli Counter Terror unit as the unit official instructor and as the unit recruit him to set new Hand to hand combative program and since his father Josef Nardia RIP been form first Israeli Paratroopers on 1950 and carry red wings from the only that allowed and all the history he studied from his father including the Old Judo styel tecah as under name ” Judo Shimushi ” Practical Judo and KAPAP Avi decide as respect and memory to all instructors that never been mention before in any Israeli Martial art web to memory them and call the new system KAPAP Israeli Krav Maga and he first reserch and bring the names first time to be heard as KAPAP and as all old days instructors and he meet Mishel Horovitz and hand him the new KAPAP Books and DVD in his home as close circle and honor to the old guys that almost all Israeli Martial art web site forgot and never mention in any web.

he biuld the KAPAP Federation on 2001 and start spread the system out side of Israel and later as from one school tecahing KAPAP its become like grass after rain…new schools and organiztions that Buy the dvd and books and ” Found KAPAP he decide to set all training under his name as he said hope no one can claim he is now the real Avi Nardia …and he teach Under Avi Nardia Academy KAPAP Israeli Krav Maga as also diferent traditional martial arts as Kendo Iaido Jido Judo Kenjutsu Aiki Kenpo Jujutsu BJJ under Machado RCJ as he said Im good Krav Maga instructor because my martial arts knowlage not because I was in Army.

today the KAPAP is world wide system